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Learning About Seasons: A Guide for Teachers and Curriculum Developers

This paper describes findings from 41 studies illustrating why the concept of seasons is difficult to learn. The article is a nice supplement to CTS Sections II, III, and IV. IT also proposes a K-12 learning progression that can be used with CTS Section V that also shows the connections between global climate zones, behavior of light, and a model of Earth in space.

Bibliographic Citation: 
Sneider, C., Bar, V., and Kavanaugh, C. (2011). Learning about seasons: A guide for teachers and curriculum developers. Astronomy Education Review. Vol 10. Issue 1. http://aer.aas.org/resource/1/aerscz/v10/i1/p010103_s1

Understanding Models in Earth and Space Science

Sections of this book can be used to supplement CTS Sections I and II. The book provides an overview and description of a full range of models used in earth and space science, including similes, analogies, metaphors, physical models, mathematical models, and computer models. It also includes suggestions for incorporating the use of models into inquiry=based instruction and the nature of science.

Bibliographic Citation: 
Gilbert, S. and Ireton, S. (2003). Understanding Models in Earth and Space Science. Arlington, VA: NSTA Press. Available through the NSTA Bookstore at nsta.org

Third Grade Students Ideas about Lunar Phases

This paper can be used to supplement Section IV by sharing a study in which third grade students shared their ideas about lunar phases prior to and following instruction designed to promote conceptual change.

Bibliographic Citation: 
Stahly, L., Krockover, G., Shepardson, D. (1999). Third grade students ideas about lunar phases. Journal of Research in Science Teaching. 36(2): 159-177.

Stellar Ideas- Exploring Students Understanding of Stars

This article can be used with Section IV. It discusses ideas high school students have about stars and discusses implications for high school courses.

Bibliographic Citation: 
Agan, L. (2004). Stellar Ideas- Exploring Students Understanding of Stars Astronomy Education Review. 3(1) Also online at: http://aer.noao.edu/cgi-bin/article.pl?id=95

Session 7: Our Nearest Neighbor: The Moon

A ten minute clip at the beginning of this video can be used with Section II to show a fifth grade lesson on developing a scale model of the size and distance of the earth and the moon. The video is an example of a constructivist lesson that starts with the students' own ideas about size and distance followed by guiding them through building a model to get a more accurate sense of scale. The lesson also addresses the ways models are constructed and used.

Bibliographic Citation: 
Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (2004). "Our Nearest Neighbor: The Moon." in Essential Science for Teachers: Earth and Space Science. Session 7. Anneneberg CPB. Click here to access streaming video on demand or get information on ordering the videotape.

Private Universe- Tape 1 Astronomy

Video shows MIT and Harvard graduates and a high school student struggling with ideas related to the sun-earth-moon system, particularly seasons and the phases of the moon. Can be used with Section IV to examine preconceptions or with Section I to clarify adult understanding (very good content explanations provided in the video).

Bibliographic Citation: 
Available from Annenberg CPB

Objects in the Sky

This assessment probe can be used with CTS Section IV. This probe targets student ideas related to when objects can be seen in the sky. The probe can be used to examine student work related to the idea that some objects can be seen only in the day time, some only at night, and some,like the moon, can be seen in both day and night. In addition, the teacher notes provide further information for CTS Sections II, III, and IV.

Bibliographic Citation: 
Keeley, P., Eberle, F., and Tugel, J. (2007). Uncovering student ideas in science-25 more formative assessment probes. Arlington, VA: NSTA Press (available at nsta.org; also available through amazon.com).

Moon Misconceptions-Bringing Pedagogical Research of Lunar Phases into the Classroom

Misconceptions on phases of the moon to use with Section IV.

Bibliographic Citation: 
Hermann, R. and Lewis, B. (Nov 2003)Moon misconceptions-bringing pedagogical research of lunar phases into the classroom.Science Scope.51-55.

Learning about Phases of the Moon and Eclipses: A Guide for Teachers and Curriculum Developers

This paper can be used with Sections II,III,IV,V, and VI to further discuss implications for curriculum and assessment as they relate to standards.

Bibliographic Citation: 
Kavanagh, C., Agan, L., Sneider, C. (2005)"Learning about Phases of the Moon and Eclipses: A Guide for Teachers and Curriculum Developers" in Astronomy Education Review 4(1) Also online at: http://aer.noao.edu/AERArticle.php?issue=7ßion=2&article=2

Identifying a Baseline for Teachers Astronomy Content Knowledge

This article connects to Section I by describing content teachers need to know to teach astronomy well. The paper describes the ADT (Astronomy Diagnostic Test). This resource may be useful when discussing what adult knowledge teachers must have in order to teach astronomy concepts in the standards.

Bibliographic Citation: 
Brunsell, E., and Marcks, J. (2005). "Identifying a Baseline for Teachers Astronomy Content Knowledge" in Astronomy Education Review 3(2) Also online at: http://aer.noao.edu/AERArticle.php?issue=6&section=2&article=3
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