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Inquiry and the Nature of Science and Technology

How Kids Learn Engineering- The Cognitive Science Perspective

This article generally summarizes new research into how and when children learn engineering concepts and skills. This article can be used to supplement CTS Section IV.

Bibliographic Citation: 
C. Schunn (2009) Web link: www.lrdc.pitt.edu/pubs/Abstracts/SchunnHowKidsLearn.pdf

How Kids Learn Engineering- The Cognitive Science Perspective

THis article generally summarizes new research into how and when children learn engineering concepts and skills. This article can be used to supplement CTS Section IV.

Bibliographic Citation: 
C. Schunn (2009) Web link: www.lrdc.pitt.edu/pubs/Abstracts/SchunnHowKidsLearn.pdf

Fundamental Skills in Science: Measurement

This web-based ERIC Digest article at http://www.ericdigests.org/2004-4/skills.htm describes the curricular and instructional considerations for teaching measurement concepts and skills (CTS Section II). It also provides a summary of some of the research on children's difficulties and misconceptions related to measurement (CTS Section IV).

Bibliographic Citation: 
Haury, D. (2003). Fundamental skills in science: measurement. Eric Clearinghouse for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education http://www.ericdigests.org/2004-4/skills.htm

Young People's Images of Science

Readings from this book can be used with CTS sections II and IV to learn more about student thinking about the nature of scientific knowledge and the relationships between science and society. The book discusses ways teachers can adapt their curriculum to help students better understand these important connections.

Bibliographic Citation: 
Driver, R., Leach, J., Millar, R., and Scott, P. (1997). Young People's Images of Science. Philadelphia, PA: Open University Press.

Understanding Models in Earth and Space Science

Sections of this book can be used to supplement CTS Sections I and II. The book provides an overview and description of a full range of models used in earth and space science, including similes, analogies, metaphors, physical models, mathematical models, and computer models. It also includes suggestions for incorporating the use of models into inquiry=based instruction and the nature of science.

Bibliographic Citation: 
Gilbert, S. and Ireton, S. (2003). Understanding Models in Earth and Space Science. Arlington, VA: NSTA Press. Available through the NSTA Bookstore at nsta.org

To Hypothesize or Not to Hypothesize, by Jerry Pine

This short article can be used with CTS Section II to alert teachers to instructional implications of implying there is a linear "scientific method" as well as considering when it is appropriate for students to develop a hypothesis versus a prediction. (Note: Scroll down to the end of the chapter to find Pine's article.)

Bibliographic Citation: 
NSF Foundations Series- Volume 2- Inquiry- Thoughts, Views, and Strategies for the K-5 Classroom. Chaper 7 p 61: http://www.nsf.gov/pubs/2000/nsf99148/ch_7.htm

The Nature of Science and the Study of Biological Evolution

This content resource is used to supplement CTS Section I by providing background knowledge for teachers (as well as high school students)on bilogical evoulution, natural selection, the nature of science, an historical account of Darwin's work, and the nature of evidence and explanations that support scientific theories such as evolution.

Bibliographic Citation: 
BSCS. (2005). The nature of science and the study of biological evolution. Arlington, VA: NSTA Press. The book is available at the NSTA bookstore at nsta.org.

Teach Evolution and Make It Relevant

This site can be used to supplement CTS sections I, II, and IV by providing content information about biological evolution and the nature of science and examples of instructional resources. Clicking on "Additional Resources" will provide information on misconceptions associated with biological evolution and the nature of science.

Bibliographic Citation: 
University of Montana, http://www.evoled.org/default.htm

Revising Instruction to Teach Nature of Science

Can be used with Section II to examine implications for instruction.

Bibliographic Citation: 
Lederman, N. and Lederman, J. (2004). Revising instruction to teach nature of science. The Science Teacher.71(90: 36-39.

Reasoning about Interactions between Variables

This study can be used with CTS Section IV to examine the difficulties students have with the causal effect of one variable and its interrelationships with other variables. Implications for the science curriculum are discussed.

Bibliographic Citation: 
Zohat,A. (1995). Reasoning about interactions between variables. Journal of Research in Science Teaching.32(10): 1039-1063.
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