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Journal Article

How Kids Learn Engineering- The Cognitive Science Perspective

This article generally summarizes new research into how and when children learn engineering concepts and skills. This article can be used to supplement CTS Section IV.

Bibliographic Citation: 
C. Schunn (2009) Web link: www.lrdc.pitt.edu/pubs/Abstracts/SchunnHowKidsLearn.pdf

How Kids Learn Engineering- The Cognitive Science Perspective

THis article generally summarizes new research into how and when children learn engineering concepts and skills. This article can be used to supplement CTS Section IV.

Bibliographic Citation: 
C. Schunn (2009) Web link: www.lrdc.pitt.edu/pubs/Abstracts/SchunnHowKidsLearn.pdf

Learning About Seasons: A Guide for Teachers and Curriculum Developers

This paper describes findings from 41 studies illustrating why the concept of seasons is difficult to learn. The article is a nice supplement to CTS Sections II, III, and IV. IT also proposes a K-12 learning progression that can be used with CTS Section V that also shows the connections between global climate zones, behavior of light, and a model of Earth in space.

Bibliographic Citation: 
Sneider, C., Bar, V., and Kavanaugh, C. (2011). Learning about seasons: A guide for teachers and curriculum developers. Astronomy Education Review. Vol 10. Issue 1. http://aer.aas.org/resource/1/aerscz/v10/i1/p010103_s1

Fundamental Skills in Science: Measurement

This web-based ERIC Digest article at http://www.ericdigests.org/2004-4/skills.htm describes the curricular and instructional considerations for teaching measurement concepts and skills (CTS Section II). It also provides a summary of some of the research on children's difficulties and misconceptions related to measurement (CTS Section IV).

Bibliographic Citation: 
Haury, D. (2003). Fundamental skills in science: measurement. Eric Clearinghouse for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education http://www.ericdigests.org/2004-4/skills.htm

Young Children Learning About Living Things: A Case Study of Conceptual Change from Ontological and Social Perspectives

This paper can be used with CTS sections II and IV to explore young children's conceptions about whether something is living. Recommendations are provided for teaching strategies that focus on conceptual change.

Bibliographic Citation: 
Venville, G. (2004). Young Children Learning About Living Things: A Case Study of Conceptual Change from Ontological and Social Perspectives. Journal of Research in Science Teaching. Vol 41(5). Pp 449-480.

Third Grade Students Ideas about Lunar Phases

This paper can be used to supplement Section IV by sharing a study in which third grade students shared their ideas about lunar phases prior to and following instruction designed to promote conceptual change.

Bibliographic Citation: 
Stahly, L., Krockover, G., Shepardson, D. (1999). Third grade students ideas about lunar phases. Journal of Research in Science Teaching. 36(2): 159-177.

The Impact of a Science Demonstration on Children's Understandings of Air Pressure

This article can be used with CTS sections II and IV to learn more about how demonstrations impact students' preconceptions about air pressure.

Bibliographic Citation: 
Shepardson, D., Moje, E., and Kennard-McClelland, A. (1994). The Impact of a Science Demonstration on Children's Understandings of Air Pressure Journal of Research in Science Teaching. Vol 31(3), pp 243-258.

Teaching for Conceptual Change: Confronting Childrens' Experience

This article can be used with Sections II and IV to examine teaching strategies that confront elementary students' tenaciously held ideas about objects, such as mittens, coats, and hats, generating their own heat. The article is a nice glimpse into a fourth grade classroom example of teaching for conceptual change.

Bibliographic Citation: 
Watson, B. and Konicek, R. (1990) Teaching for Conceptual Change: Confronting Childrens' Experience Phi Delta Kappan, May 1990, Pp 680-684. To access article online: http://www.exploratorium.edu/IFI/resources/workshops/teachingforconcept.html

Students Understanding of Chemical Bonds and the Energetics of Chemcal Reactions

This supplement to Section IV investigates 12th grade students understandings of the nature of chemical bonds and energy chages across familiar chemical reactions following instruction.

Bibliographic Citation: 
Boo, H. (1998). Students understanding of chemical bonds and the energetics of chemcal reactions. Journal of Research in Science Teaching. 35(5): 569-581.

Student Understanding of the Volume, Mass, and Pressure of Air within a Sealed Syringe in Different States of Compression

This supplement to Section IV addresses difficulties students have understanding qualitative and quantitative pressure and volume relationships of air within a sealed syringe in different states of compression in a task related to Boyles Law.

Bibliographic Citation: 
De Berg, K. (1995). Student understanding of the volume, mass, and pressure of air within a sealed syringe in different states of compression. Journal of Research in Science Teching. 32(8). 871-884.
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