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How Kids Learn Engineering- The Cognitive Science Perspective

This article generally summarizes new research into how and when children learn engineering concepts and skills. This article can be used to supplement CTS Section IV.

Bibliographic Citation: 
C. Schunn (2009) Web link: www.lrdc.pitt.edu/pubs/Abstracts/SchunnHowKidsLearn.pdf

How Kids Learn Engineering- The Cognitive Science Perspective

THis article generally summarizes new research into how and when children learn engineering concepts and skills. This article can be used to supplement CTS Section IV.

Bibliographic Citation: 
C. Schunn (2009) Web link: www.lrdc.pitt.edu/pubs/Abstracts/SchunnHowKidsLearn.pdf

Learning About Seasons: A Guide for Teachers and Curriculum Developers

This paper describes findings from 41 studies illustrating why the concept of seasons is difficult to learn. The article is a nice supplement to CTS Sections II, III, and IV. IT also proposes a K-12 learning progression that can be used with CTS Section V that also shows the connections between global climate zones, behavior of light, and a model of Earth in space.

Bibliographic Citation: 
Sneider, C., Bar, V., and Kavanaugh, C. (2011). Learning about seasons: A guide for teachers and curriculum developers. Astronomy Education Review. Vol 10. Issue 1. http://aer.aas.org/resource/1/aerscz/v10/i1/p010103_s1

Fundamental Skills in Science: Measurement

This web-based ERIC Digest article at http://www.ericdigests.org/2004-4/skills.htm describes the curricular and instructional considerations for teaching measurement concepts and skills (CTS Section II). It also provides a summary of some of the research on children's difficulties and misconceptions related to measurement (CTS Section IV).

Bibliographic Citation: 
Haury, D. (2003). Fundamental skills in science: measurement. Eric Clearinghouse for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education http://www.ericdigests.org/2004-4/skills.htm

Why Are Some Ideas so Difficult?

Supplement to Section IV. This short 1 minute clip shows a middle school student describing how plants make food from water, sunlight, and soil.

Bibliographic Citation: 
Harvard Smithsonian Digital Video Library: http://hsdvl.org/video.php?record_serial=86&source=4

To Hypothesize or Not to Hypothesize, by Jerry Pine

This short article can be used with CTS Section II to alert teachers to instructional implications of implying there is a linear "scientific method" as well as considering when it is appropriate for students to develop a hypothesis versus a prediction. (Note: Scroll down to the end of the chapter to find Pine's article.)

Bibliographic Citation: 
NSF Foundations Series- Volume 2- Inquiry- Thoughts, Views, and Strategies for the K-5 Classroom. Chaper 7 p 61: http://www.nsf.gov/pubs/2000/nsf99148/ch_7.htm

Teaching About Energy

This paper can be used to supplement CTS Sections II and IV. The paper addresses commonly held ideas students have about energy, why the concept of energy is so difficult to learn, considerations for teaching energy-related ideas, and suggestions for teaching specific energy-related concepts.

Bibliographic Citation: 
Millar, R. Teaching about Energy. 2005. Department of Educational Studies: Research Paper 2005/11. University of York. www.york.ac.uk/depts/educ/research/ResearchPaperSeries/Paper11Teachingaboutenergy.pdf

Teaching About Energy

This paper can be used as a supplement for Sections I and II. It addresses the scientific idea of energy and considers how energy, used in an everyday context, raises implications for teaching.

Bibliographic Citation: 
Millar, R.2005. Teaching About Energy. University of York, UK. http://www.york.ac.uk/depts/educ/ResearchPaperSeries/Paper%2011%20Teaching%20about%20energy.pdf

Teach Evolution and Make It Relevant

This site can be used to supplement CTS sections I, II, and IV by providing content information about biological evolution and the nature of science and examples of instructional resources. Clicking on "Additional Resources" will provide information on misconceptions associated with biological evolution and the nature of science.

Bibliographic Citation: 
University of Montana, http://www.evoled.org/default.htm

Students' Representations and Explanations of Dissolving in Regard to Interactions of Molecules

This resource can be used with CTS Section IV (grades 8 and above) to examine research findings about students' understanding of dissolving from a macro to micro level.

Bibliographic Citation: 
Concord Consortium (2006). Students' Representations and Explanations of Dissolving in Regard to Interactions of Molecules. The Molecular Workbench- Research Results at http://workbench.concord.org/research/results/spec_analysis_dis1.html
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