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Experimental Design

To Hypothesize or Not to Hypothesize, by Jerry Pine

This short article can be used with CTS Section II to alert teachers to instructional implications of implying there is a linear "scientific method" as well as considering when it is appropriate for students to develop a hypothesis versus a prediction. (Note: Scroll down to the end of the chapter to find Pine's article.)

Bibliographic Citation: 
NSF Foundations Series- Volume 2- Inquiry- Thoughts, Views, and Strategies for the K-5 Classroom. Chaper 7 p 61: http://www.nsf.gov/pubs/2000/nsf99148/ch_7.htm

Identifying Patterns and Relationships among the Responses of Seventh Grade Students to the Science Process Skill of Designing Experiments

Section II and IV supplement. This study examines the factors that may be related to students ability to s uccessfully design experiments. Results indicate that explicit, incremental development of the skills of formulating hypotheses and identfying variables is needed for student success.

Bibliographic Citation: 
Germann, P., Aram, R., and Burke, G. (1996). Identifying patterns and relationships among the responses of seventh grade students to the science process skill of designing experiments. Journal of Research in Science Teaching. 33(1): 79-99.
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